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The New Dutch ICS 2003-2008 Research Program

Interuniversity Center for Social Science Theory and Methodology
p. 37-53


Le nouveau programme de recherche 2003-2008 du centre hollandais ICS: Le Centre interuniversitaire de théorie et de méthodologie en sciences sociales (ICS) est une école doctorale et un centre de recherche fondé en 1989 qui comprend les universités de Groningen, Utrecht et Nijmegen. L'an dernier, en plus de son renouvellement par l'Académie royale hollandaise des arts et des sciences (KNAW), d'importants changements ont eu lieu ; ils sont décrits en détails dans son récent Annual Report d'où est tiré cet article. Le programme de recherche de l'ICS comprend maintenant une branche Réseaux sociaux, solidarité et inégalités qui est présentée ici avec les quatre autres branches de recherche et la liste complète des doctorants ICS (le titre de leur thèse).

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1The Interuniversity Center for Social Science Theory and Methodology (ICS) was founded in 1989, and certified in 1993 and in 1998 by the Royal Dutch Academy of Arts and Sciences (KNAW). It is located at three universities: the University of Groningen, Utrecht University, and the University of Nijmegen.

2As a graduate school and research center, the ICS has a double mission. Whereas the ICS started as a network for a structured PhD program in 1986, the ICS research activities became more important over the time and, presently, both missions are of equal importance. Accordingly, in Chapter 1 (ICS 2003: 9-32), the ICS research program for the period 2003-2008 is presented and, in Chapter 2 (ICS 2003: 33-50), the structured PhD training program is summarized.

3The ICS was established to promote theoretically and methodologically advanced research in the field of sociology and the social sciences in general. The name "Interuniversity Center for Social Science Theory and Methodology" was chosen to underline the fact that the ICS focuses on problems that are central to the social sciences in general, and that ICS research does not exclude theories or methods on the basis of their disciplinary origin.

4In social science research, existing knowledge is often not adequately utilized, due to the fact that these sciences are divided into many subdisciplines with little mutual contact. The ICS program's objective is twofold: to integrate various subdisciplines, and to integrate theory formation and methodological developments with solid empirical research, using theoretically elaborated and technically well-specified models. To meet these objectives, the combination of established traditions of empirical research in sociology with those of formal modeling of individual actions ("structural individualism") is seen as a fruitful strategy. In this tradition, social phenomena are explained by the choices made by goal-oriented actors, facing the restrictions of their social situation. Special attention is paid to the ways in which individual choices aggregate to social phenomena, the "micro-macro transition".

5The core of the research done at the ICS is formed by elaborating and empirically testing explanatory models of social processes. This requires skills in the construction of theoretical models and in the application of advanced techniques of analysis and measurement. In order to meet these requirements, the ICS provides access to ample computational facilities and methodological support. The training program, described in Chapter 2, is geared to the acquisition of the necessary skills.

6ICS research is characterized by a common research strategy and a common field of interest. The common research strategy uses deductive theory construction based on micro-foundations, theory-guided empirical research, and statistical testing. During the initial KNAW accreditation period (1993-1997), the common field of interest was defined as problems of distribution and coordination within markets and organisations, reflecting the two overarching problems of social science: inequality and cohesion. Solidarity problems became the common field of interest for the ICS research program during the second KNAW accreditation period (1998-2002).

7Solidarity behavior has been broadly conceived as the contribution of private resources to common ends without direct compensation. Thus, solidarity problems are closely related to problems of coordination, cooperation, and cohesion. Solidarity problems have been studied in informal settings such as families, ethnic groups, neighborhoods, and voluntary organizations, on the one hand, and formal settings, on the other, such as relations within and between formal organizations. A major problem shift in ICS research on solidarity problems during the execution of the 1998-2002 program can be identified as an increasing attention for the role of social networks in maintaining or undermining solidarity.

8Therefore, the new 2003-2008 ICS program, see Chapter 1, defines Social Networks, Solidarity, and Inequality as the new common focus for ICS research. Questions about solidarity are retained because of their theoretical as well as societal relevance. Problems of inequality are added because of the importance of inequality as a major problem of social science and as a societal problem that attracts systematic attention in much ICS research. The role of social networks is stressed because networks comprise much of the social structure that generates, maintains, or undermines solidarity, on the one hand, and induces inequalities, on the other, so that questions of inequality and solidarity often can be fruitfully studied by considering aspects of the social network between the actors.

9During the 1998-2002 period, ICS research was organized in three main clusters: (A) Micro-foundations of Solidarity, (B) Solidarity in Informal Settings, (C) Solidarity in Formal Settings. In addition, two support clusters were aiming at (D) the collection and archiving of data, and (E) the development of specific methodological designs, methods and instruments required for the ICS approach.

10In view of the new research program for the accreditation period 2003-2008, and to further stimulate cooperation within the ICS, this has been restructured to five research clusters:
A.  Theoretical tools for the study of behavior in social contexts
B.  Construction of complex data sets and models for measurement and statistical analysis
C.  Families, schools, work, and leisure
D.  Organizations
E.  Ethnicity and religion

Structure of the Research Program and Research Clusters

11The research program is implemented through five research clusters. One of the research clusters aims at further developing theoretical tools for the study of behavior in social contexts with a focus on networks. A second cluster has the purpose to generate appropriate data sets and to develop methodological tools, with a focus on models for measurement and the statistical analysis of complex (multivariate, multi-actor, multi-event, multi-level) data sets. Three research clusters represent small-scale, medium-sized, and large-scale social contexts, respectively, and constitute substantive domains for executing the research program. Thus, the structure of the research program can be represented as a matrix with one dimension formed by theoretical and methodological issues and the other by the three substantive domains.

Research cluster A: Theoretical tools for the study of behavior in social contexts

12The aim of this cluster is to elaborate theoretical tools for implementing the research strategy and to develop theory that allows to specify the relationships between network characteristics, solidarity, and inequality. More specifically, research in this cluster addresses two sets of topics and problems.

13The first of these revolves around the development of micro models of behavior that are suited for the study of how social contexts shape behavior and how behavior generates social phenomena and transforms the context itself. While the idea of purposive behavior constitutes a common core, a wide variety of micro models is developed and applied in ICS research. They include standard rational choice models for decision making under certainty and risk (utility theory), as well as in strategic situations (game theory) and in collective decision making. Alternative and complementary models focus on constraints for purposive behavior due to limitations of available information and information processing as well as cognitive selection processes that define or frame the action situation. Bounded rationality is also approached, using learning or imitation models, as well as evolutionary explanations. Hypotheses are generated using analytical approaches as well as simulation. An important feature of ICS research on micro models is that they take into account the trade-off between descriptive adequacy with respect to regularities of human behavior and the underlying cognitive as well as motivational processes, on the one hand, and, on the other, analytical tractability when it comes to macro-micro-macro transitions which are required, given the focus on social phenomena as the explananda.

14A second set of topics in this cluster is related to the development of theoretical tools for the analysis of the relationships between networks, solidarity, and inequality. Social networks can be conceived of as social capital. Actors with more (and better) social capital will better achieve their goals, and purposive action will thus include investments in relations with others, with an eye on the expected future returns from investments in relations. Given a social capital approach, major problems to be addressed are, first, network effects on characteristics of actors (including abilities and attitudes) and their behavior, and social phenomena resulting from this behavior. These problems include the questions of: how contextual conditions such as institutional regulations affect network characteristics and the social capital associated with networks (e.g., dense networks may constitute valuable social capital under some conditions, while occupying a structural hole position may be advantageous in other contexts); how network characteristics contribute to unequal distributions of social capital between different (groups of) actors and thus to social inequality; how networks affect solidarity; and when social networks have negative consequences for individuals (e.g., due to negative interdependencies or to over investment). The mechanism approach to explanation avoids an exclusive focus on effects of networks. Rather, such an approach likewise generates questions on how networks arise and evolve over time. Thus, the feedback between and the dynamics of individual behavior and network structure will be studied. The social capital approach represents an instrumental perspective on networks -- networks are conceived of as instruments of human goal pursuit. Another approach to network formation and evolution, which will also be explored, compared, and possibly combined with the social capital approach, focuses on cognitive processes that steer social categorization and the formation of relationships through framing.

Research cluster B: Construction of complex data sets and models for measurement and statistical analysis

15Work within this cluster aims at constructing appropriate data sets and at the development of methodological tools, mainly measurement instruments, measurement models, and statistical analysis procedures, that are particularly important for ICS research. Researchers in this cluster also provide methodological support to substantive-oriented ICS researchers.

16The research in this cluster is based on general multivariate statistical methodology and includes topics such as scale construction, categorical data analysis, and structural equation modeling. The focus is on measurement models in socially-structured situations (like social networks and local contexts), and on statistical models for analyzing data sets with a complex structure (multi-actor, multi-event, multi-level) that are applied in empirical ICS research. This includes procedures for measuring and analyzing social networks; multilevel analysis and its use in the analysis of contextual data; and longitudinal methods, in particular, event history analysis and methods for repeated cross-sectional surveys. Particular attention is paid to statistical models that reflect theoretical modeling of purposive individual behavior in the social context.

17The development of models for social network analysis is an important topic in this cluster. Recently, there have been important advances in data-analysis procedures for social networks, based on stochastic models, made possible by the use of computer-intensive statistical methods, mainly Markov-chain Monte Carlo methods. This cluster contributes to this line of research; in particular, to methods for dynamic network analysis, including the joint modeling of the evolution of relational networks and of behavior and performance of individual actors. The

18integration with theoretical work is pursued through the use of random-utility models and close collaboration with the other clusters.

19An important element of this research cluster is the design and collection of appropriate data sets. These include complex and large-scale multi-actor, multi-level, and multi-event data sets that have been collected and will be collected in the future in different fields (e.g., families and households, neighborhoods, work organizations, inter-firm relations). These data sets are increasingly combined with detailed secondary sources (e.g., via postal code information and geographical information from Statistics Netherlands) in order to model the impact of the meso- and macro-social context. Advocating a multi-method approach, ICS research also employs designs that usefully complement large-scale surveys, such as experiments, vignet-studies, and expert-interviews, often yielding useful data for specific tests of predictions derived from formal theoretical models.

20The ICS maintains a support cluster, Data archiving. The aim of this support cluster is to facilitate and professionalize the collection of primary data by ICS researchers, to document and archive primary data collected by ICS researchers, to facilitate the use of secondary data from Dutch and foreign sources by ICS researchers, and to promote the use of standardized ways of measurement in ICS research. Via this support cluster, ICS cooperates closely with archives for social science data in the Netherlands and abroad, for example, the Steinmetz Archives of NIWI.

Research cluster C: Families, schools, work, and leisure

21This cluster involves questions about the interrelation between networks and solidarity, as well as inequality in small-scale social settings.

22Quite a lot of people, in a life course sequence, go to school, get a job, meet a partner and form a family. A person is integrated in a family, as well as in social contexts such as a neighborhood, a city, and a society. The life course and the context are studied dynamically, since individual life-course events and a changing social context are likely to be interdependent. An important part of ICS research on life-course career patterns is organized around three main topics. The development of pro- and antisocial behavior among youth is the first of these topics. Here, the influence of family, neighborhoods, peers, and school is studied, as well as the influence of individual characteristics, including aspects like personality and physical characteristics. An overarching question is when and to what extent inequalities affect life chances such as health, education, occupation, leisure patterns, and victimization during the life course. Related questions are the description and explanation of effects of parental resources, of networks, of major life events, and of the changing social context on these life chances.

23A second main topic is the formation and organization of families and couples. Marriage behavior is studied using market theories. Besides the formation of households, their internal organization has become an increasingly important research theme. This includes the division of labor within households: How do resources affect the choices people make with respect to caring tasks and paid labor, and how do these choices interact with career opportunities? A more recent theme is solidarity and conflict in couple and family relationships.

24A third main topic in this cluster is the mutual relation between the local social context; e.g., in neighborhoods and schools, and individual behavior. This includes questions about feedback effects between social networks and individual behavior, well-being, and attitudes, about antecedents of collective action, including participation in voluntary organizations, and of whether such a local social context qualifies for being experienced as a community.

Research cluster D: Organizations

25Organizations represent medium-scale social settings for studying networks, solidarity, and inequality. This cluster addresses causes, processes, and consequences of formal and informal governance in and between organizations, with an emphasis on social networks as antecedents, moderators, and outcomes of governance and on how governance affects solidarity and inequality. The cluster focuses on three types of relationship. The first type refers to relationships of corporate social actors such as firms with persons "within" these corporate actors such as employees; a second type consists of relationships between persons "inside" organizations such as relationships in teams of professionals, and a third type covers relationships between organizations as well as relationships between organizations and their clients.

26Various societal developments are the background for research on relationships between firms and employees, as well as relationships between employees. Changes in the legal framework for employment contracts allow more flexible employment relationships, thus changing the conditions for solidarity and cooperation inside the firm. Technological innovations facilitate the collection and use of large amounts of work-related information. The increasing labor market participation of women results in time-allocation dilemmas for the growing number of double earner households, adding a new dimension to the debate on social inequality. These developments put pressure on traditional forms of governance, but also can hamper the development and stabilization of its major alternative, informal networks. A number of research questions will be addressed. First, which alternative forms of formal and informal governance are required to safeguard durable cooperation and solidarity in organizations under conditions of increasingly flexible contracts and a short shadow of the future? How do firms change their governance structures in order to cope with these developments? Second, which are the consequences of the increased access to information for cooperation inside the firm and for the organization of professional work? The reduction of monitoring costs due to new information technologies favors a stronger reliance on technical and personal forms of control in some industries. In others, new technologies give rise to new forms of professional collaboration; e.g., through the creation of internet communities. How will these developments influence inequalities in career and reward opportunities? Finally, the increase of the number of dual-earner households leads to various questions on the interface of this research cluster with cluster C; for example, how the competing pressures from the work and home environments are resolved within the household and through organizational governance; and how do these pressures affect cooperation between employer and employee, and cooperation between employees.

27Research on the relationship between corporate actors such as firms and on the relationship between corporate actors and their clients will be further developed along three lines. The first one involves the role of network embeddedness in the governance of inter-firm cooperation, differentiating this role according to the different relational phases such as partner search, contracting, contract execution, and ex-post regulation of conflicts. The second line tackles the question of how firms and organizations respond to increased pressure to legitimize their actions not only in terms of economic performance, but also in terms of the social and environmental implications of their activities. Accountability and corporate responsibility of firms increasingly tends to be monitored by third parties who are either socially or legally legitimated. The institutionalization of such practices requires reliable measurement instruments for the assessment of corporate responsibility. The third line covers the changing nature of collective decision making processes. Social networks play a crucial role for collective decision making processes in politics and business by facilitating or impeding access to, and influence attempts towards, other decision makers. Basic questions in this research line build on earlier and ongoing ICS research on policy implementation and evaluation research and relate to the development of institutional design and theory-guided interventions.

Research cluster E: Ethnicity and religion

28This cluster addresses large-scale social settings and involves questions related to the cultural diversity of societies with a focus on two major, interrelated dimensions of cultural diversity; i.e., ethnicity and religion.

29Due to migration, many contemporary European societies have become more multi-ethnic than ever before. Immigrants originate from countries with different social institutions, such as different laws on the equality of women or with hardly any distinction between the state and the church. Differences between old religious groups become less prominent while differences with respect to more or less "imported" religions become more important. In such societies, new networks emerge. The integration paradox is a key issue here: integration in social or ethnic groups at an intermediate or meso-level is generally considered as something positive, but may have negative outcomes at a macro-level: solidarity within one's social or ethnic group may reinforce a lack of solidarity with other social or ethnic groups. The lack of solidarity between groups may become manifest in unfavorable attitudes and discriminatory behavior towards other social or ethnic groups. How can these phenomena be explained and which conditions affect the relationship between these forms of solidarity? Next to the interplay between ethnicity and solidarity in multi-cultural societies, the relation between ethnicity and inequality becomes pertinent. Life chances of some minority groups are clearly below average, as indicated by unemployment and sick-leave figures. Research focuses on the explanation of these inequalities by going beyond an exclusive focus on cultural differences, and considering the specific resources available and the specific settings people live in.

30Another topic of this cluster is religion, which is often closely linked to ethnicity. In the past decade, there has been a lively debate on the relationship between religious pluralism and religious involvement. Traditional secularization theories suggest that religious diversity induces lower levels of religious participation but supply side theory, based on market arguments, states that religious pluralism fosters religious involvement. Interestingly, this research neglects the organization of churches. Within and among societies, religious organizations have their own networks, either heavily centralized (Catholic church) or de-centralized (Protestant church). It is to be expected that a highly-centralized church organization will resist encroaching agnosticism more than loose federations. Obviously, the same logic should apply to other religions such as Islam. Furthermore, priests, vicars and imams have different positions in the networks of the laity. Related questions are: To what extent do we find differences in religious switching, re-churching, and un-churching among contemporary societies and how can these differences be explained? To what extent do differences in organizational structure and social context explain differences in secularization between religions?

31The relation between religious involvement and behavior also is studied in this cluster. Kinds of behavior traditionally linked to religion are, for example, voting, civil behavior, participation in voluntary associations, various forms of solidarity behavior, and intermarriage. Trends in secularization are expected to imply trends in the frequency of occurrence of such kinds of behavior, but also in the strength of the links between religious affiliation and these behaviors. Various descriptive and explanatory questions can be posed about trends in this domain and differences in these trends between societies. Some specific examples are to what extent the decline in particular activities has been compensated by an increase of secular associations (such as sport clubs and also ethical organizations such as environmental and human right organizations); and to what extent religious intermarriage varies among societies and over time and how these differences can be explained.

Current Ph.D Projects

Yeargroup 1995

32Marcel van Egmond (KUN/UvA), Non-Voting in Industrialized Countries in Recent Decades
Supervisors: Cees van der Eijk (UvA), Wout Ultee (KUN), Nan Dirk de Graaf (KUN)
Christian Steglich (RUG), The Framing of Decision Situations​phd95l4.htm
Supervisors: Siegwart Lindenberg (RUG), Tom Snijders (RUG), Charles Vlek (RUG)

Yeargroup 1996

33Marnix Croes (UU), (and Peter Tammes (KUN), yeargroup 97), Perpetrators, Bystanders and Victims: Chances of Deportation and Death of Jews in the Netherlands during World War II
Supervisors: Wout Ultee (KUN), Henk Flap (UU), Cor Lammers, Hans. Blom (NIOD)
Liesbeth Haken (RUG), Choices for Living and Care Arrangements of Frail Elderly
Supervisors: Siegwart Lindenberg (RUG), Wim van den Heuvel (UM), Nardi Steverink (RUG)
Ineke Nagel (UU), Cultural Careers
Supervisors: Harry Ganzeboom (UU), Tom Snijders (RUG)

Yeargroup 1997

34René Bekkers (UU), Individual and Situational Determinants of Prosocial Behavior
Supervisors: Harry Ganzeboom (UU), Nan-Dirk de Graaf (KUN)
Johan Hansen (UU), Organizational Changes and Careers of Men and Women
Supervisors: Tanja van der Lippe (UU), Anneke van Doorne-Huiskes (EUR), Harry Ganzeboom (UU)
Corine Hoeben (RUG) LETS' Be a Community. The Level of Community in Local Exchange and Trade Systems
Supervisors: Siegwart Lindenberg (RUG), Henk de Vos (RUG), Anna Petra Nieboer (UM).
Carlijne Philips (RUG), Vacation Communities
Supervisors: Rudi Wielers (EUR), Siegwart Lindenberg (RUG)
Peter Tammes (KUN) (and Marnix Croes (UU), yeargroup 1996), Perpetrators, Bystanders and Victims: Chances of Deportation and Death of Jews living in the Netherlands during World War II
Supervisors: Wout Ultee (KUN), Henk Flap (UU), Cor Lammers, J.C.H. Blom (NIOD)

Yeargroup 1998

35Tamar Fischer (KUN), The Effects of Divorce on Children's Social-relational and Demographic Behavior and Socioeconomic Outcomes from a Dynamic Perspective
Supervisors: Paul de Graaf (KUN), Matthijs Kalmijn (UU), Wout Ultee (KUN)
Martin van der Gaag (RUG), Measurement of Individual Social Capital
Supervisors: Tom Snijders (RUG), Henk Flap (UU)
Justine Horgan (RUG), Promotion Systems and Flanking Arrangements as Governance Structures. An Empirical Study on the Effects of Promotion Systems on the Performance and Cooperation of Employees in the Organization
Supervisors: Siegwart Lindenberg (RUG), Tom Snijders (RUG)
Renée van der Hulst (RUG), Informal Networks and Organizational Achievement: Gender Differences in Workplace Authority?
Supervisors: Karin Sanders (RUG), Tom Snijders (RUG)
Vivian Meertens (KUN), Individual and Contextual Determinants of Depressive Symptoms in the Open Community
Supervisors: Bert Tax (KUN), Peer Scheepers (KUN), Paul Hodiamont (KUB), Wout Ultee (KUN)
Christiaan Monden (KUN), Social Inequality, Risk Behavior and Health. Parents, Partners and Exposure Effects in Multi-moment Multi-actor Models of Health Inequality
Supervisors: Gerbert Kraaykamp (KUN), Nan-Dirk de Graaf (KUN), Wout Ultee (KUN)
Lotte Vermeij (UU), Cultural and Social Integration among High School Pupils
Supervisors: Harry Ganzeboom (UU), Chris Baerveldt (UU)
Johan van Wilsem (KUN), Victimization and Social Contexts - The Impact of Individual and Structural Characteristics
Supervisors: Wout Ultee (KUN), Nan Dirk de Graaf (KUN), Karin Wittebrood (SCP)
Iris Zamir (UU), 15 Million Neighbors in the Netherlands
Supervisors: Beate Völker (UU), Henk Flap (UU), Werner Raub (UU), Siegwart Lindenberg (RUG)

Yeargroup 1999

36Javier Arregui (RUG), Bargaining Models of Decision-Making in the European Union (EU)
Supervisors: Frans Stokman (RUG) and Thomas König (University of Konstanz)
Maurice Gesthuizen (KUN), The Life Course of the Low Educated in the Netherlands Since the 1950s
Supervisors: Paul de Graaf (KUN), Gerbert Kraaykamp (KUN), Wout Ultee (KUN)
Evelyn Hello (KUN), Education and Ethnic Exclusionism
Supervisors: Peer Scheepers (KUN), Jan Gerris (KUN), Peter Sleegers (KUN), Wout Ultee (KUN)
Carolien Klein Haarhuis (UU), The Impact of World Bank Anticorruption Programs
Supervisors: Frans Leeuw (UU), Jacques Siegers (UU), René Torenvlied (UU)
Esther de Ruijter (UU), Outsourcing of Household and Caring Tasks
Supervisors: Tanja van der Lippe (UU), Werner Raub (UU), Jeroen Weesie (UU)
Rita Smaniotto (RUG), Human Social Behavior and the Role of Emotions: An Evolutionary Psychological View
Supervisors: H. de Vos (RUG), A. Flache (RUG), F.N. Stokman (RUG), A.P. Buunk (RUG)

Yeargroup 2000

37Davide Barrera (UU), Trust in Embedded Settings
Supervisors: Vincent Buskens (UU), Werner Raub (UU), Jeroen Weesie (UU)
Marie-Louise Damen (UU), Effects of Education on Cultural Participation
Supervisors: Harry Ganzeboom (UU)
Patricia van Echtelt (RUG), Time-Greedy Employment Relationships
Supervisors: Arie Glebbeek (RUG), Sigi Lindenberg (RUG), Rudi Wielers (EUR)
Ferry Koster, Solidarity within Organizations
Supervisors: Karin Sanders (RUG/KUB), Werner Raub (UU), Frans Stokman (RUG)
Mattijs Lambooij (UU), Managerial Choice of Career Systems and Effects on Compliance and Organizational Citizenship Behavior of Employees
Supervisors: Jacques Siegers (UU), Hetty van Emmerik (UU), Albertine Veldman (UU).
Ruud van der Meulen (KUN), The Dutch Youth Sport Experience. An Investigation of Cultural, Social, and Developmental Influences
Supervisors: Gerbert Kraaykamp (KUN), Wout Ultee (KUN)
Hanneke Schuurmans (RUG), Enhancing self-management ability in frail elderly inpatients
Supervisors: Joris Slaets (RUG), Sigi Lindenberg (RUG), Nardi Steverink (RUG)
Frank van Tubergen (UU), The Social and Cultural Integration of Ethnic Minorities in West-Europe: Individual and Contextual Effects
Supervisors: Matthijs Kalmijn (UU), Henk Flap (UU), Werner Raub (UU)
Jannes de Vries (KUN), The Quality of Retrospective Survey Data
Supervisors: Rob Eisinga (KUN), Nan Dirk de Graaf (KUN), Paul de Graaf (KUN)
Marieke van der Wal (RUG), Production of Cross-Curricular Competencies and EVLN-Intentions
Supervisor: prof. dr. J.L. Peschar (RUG), prof. dr. T.A.B. Snijders (RUG)
Philip Wotschack (RUG), Time Competition, Flexible Contracts and Intra-household Negotiation
Supervisors: Rafael Wittek (RUG), Jacques Siegers (UU), Jules Peschar (RUG), Rie Bosman (RUG)

Yeargroup 2001

38Ingrid Doorten (UU), Partner Relationships and Solidarity
Supervisors: Trudie Knijn (UU), Pearl Dykstra (NIDI)
Ayse Güveli (KUN), Changing Class Structure in Post-Industrial Society: A New Cleavage or Just Educational Differences?
Supervisors: Nan Dirk de Graaf (KUN)
Gijs van Houten (UU), The Enigma of the Dutch "Polder Model"
Supervisors: René Torenvlied (UU), Agnes Akkerman (UU), Werner Raub (UU)
Mirjam Plantinga (RUG), Work Motivation and Work Performance in Care Work
Supervisors: Janneke Plantenga (RUG/UU), Jacques Siegers (UU), Hans Knol (RUG)
Mathilde Strating (RUG), Disability, Social Support and Well Being in Rheumatoid Arthritis
Supervisors: Frans Stokman (RUG), Theo Suurmeijer (RUG), Wijbrandt van Schuur (RUG)
Helga de Valk (NIDI), Family Norms and Demographic Choices: Ethnic Groups in the Netherlands Compared
Supervisor: Aat Liefbroer (NIDI)
Willem-Jan Verhoeven (UU), Income Inequality and the Post-Communist Transformation. Changing Income Inequality in Eastern European Countries, 1980-2000
Supervisors: Harry Ganzeboom (UU/VU), Jos Dessens (UU) and Wim Jansen (UU).

Yeargroup 2002

39Jacob Dijkstra (RUG), Network Effects on Exchange with Externalities
Supervisors: Frans Stokman (RUG), Marcel van Assen (UvT)
Jan Kornelis Dijkstra (RUG), Peers and Pro/Anti Social Behavior. Relations within and between Groups
Supervisors: Siegwart Lindenberg (RUG), Rafael Wittek (RUG), René Veenstra (RUG)
Ruben van Gaalen (NIDI, UU), Solidarity and Conflict in Intergenerational Family Relationships
Supervisors: Pearl Dykstra (NIDI/UU), Aafke Komter (UU), Henk Flap (UU)
Wouter van Gils (KUN), Full Time Working Couples in Professional and Managerial Occupations
Supervisors: Gerbert Kraaykamp (KUN), Tanja van der Lippe (UU), Wout Ultee (KUN)
Wilko van Iperen (KUN), Economy or Canopy? The Influence of Religious Pluralism on Religious Involvement
Supervisors: Nan Dirk de Graaf (KUN), Manfred te Grotenhuis (KUN), Ariana Need (KUN)
Andrea Knecht (UU), The Development of Norms in High School Classes
Supervisors: Chris Baerveldt (UU), Roel Bosker (UT), Werner Raub (UU)
Jan Reitsma (KUN), Differential Social Consequences of Religious Orientations: Ethnic Exclusionism and Solidarity
Supervisors: Peer Scheepers, (KUN), Jacques Janssen (KUN), Wout Ultee (KUN)
Stijn Ruiter (KUN), Changes in (Anti) Social Behavior and Related (Anti) Social Attitudes: Cohort or Period Effects?
Supervisors: Nan Dirk de Graaf (KUN), Paul de Graaf (KUN)
Michael Schweinberger, Statistical Methods for Studying the Evolution of Networks and Behavior
Supervisors: Tom Snijders (RUG), Jeroen Weesie (UU), Marijtje van Duijn (RUG)
Sonja Vogt (UU), Asymmetric Social Dilemmas
Supervisors: Jeroen Weesie (UU), Werner Raub (UU), Kees van den Bos (UU)
Marieke Voorpostel (UU), Sibling Solidarity across the Life Course
Supervisors: Pearl Dykstra (NIDI/UU), Tanja van der Lippe (UU), Henk Flap (UU)

Yeargroup 2003

40Istvan Back (RUG), The Evolution of Social Rationality
Supervisors: Andreas Flache (RUG), Henk de Vos (RUG), Tom Snijders (RUG)
Nicole den Haan (RUG), Reintegratie van arbeidsgehandicapten
Supervisors: Arie Glebbeek (RUG), Rafael Wittek (RUG), Groothof (NCG)
Eva Jasper (KUN), Do Personal Experiences Change Attitudes?
Supervisors: Marcel Lubbers (KUN), Nan Dirk de Graaf (KUN)
Janneke Joly (RUG), Framing and the Maintenance of Stable Solidarity Relationships
Supervisors: Sigi Lindenberg (RUG), Diederik Stapel (psychology, RUG)
Nienke Moor (KUN), The Evolution of Activist Images of God(s) and Communality of Rites
Supervisors: Wout Ultee (KUN), Ariana Need (KUN), Ad Borsboom (Anthropology, KUN)
Stefan Thau (RUG), Conflict Management During Organizational Transition Processes
Supervisors: Frans Stokman (RUG), Rafael Wittek (RUG), Evert van de Vliert (psychology, RUG)
Ellen Verbakel (KUN), Changes in the Relationship between the Labor Market Careers of Husbands and Wives
Supervisors: Paul de Graaf (KUN), Wout Ultee (KUN)
Gijs Weijters (KUN), Explanations of Youth Delinquency in Duch Cities and Neighbourhoods: Individual and Contextual Determinants
Supervisors: Peer Scheepers (KUN), Jan Gerris (KUN)
Richard Zijdeman (UU), Changes in Social Mobility During Industrialization: Life Courses in Local Contexts
Supervisors: Ineke Maas(UU), Marco van Leeuwen (IISG), Henk Flap (UU)

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Interuniversity Center for Social Science Theory and Methodology (ICS) (2003), Annual Report of the Interuniversity Center for Social Science Theory and Methodology 2002, Groningen, Utrecht and Nijmegen,, 205 pp.

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Interuniversity Center for Social Science Theory and Methodology, « The New Dutch ICS 2003-2008 Research Program », Bulletin de méthodologie sociologique, 80 | 2003, 37-53.

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Interuniversity Center for Social Science Theory and Methodology, « The New Dutch ICS 2003-2008 Research Program », Bulletin de méthodologie sociologique [En ligne], 80 | 2003, mis en ligne le 30 mai 2008, consulté le 28 mars 2017. URL :

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Interuniversity Center for Social Science Theory and Methodology

(University of Groningen, Utrecht University, University of Nijmegen;

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